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Full text of "Catalog no. 9: Colonial Steel Company"

GoionialSteei 



^RK R*° N 



HIGH GRADE 
STEEL 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 



CATALOG No. 9 



COLONIAL STEEL 
COMPANY 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Crucible and High Grade 
Open-Hearth Steel 




*^UKBE^ 



MAIN OFFICE 

Keystone Building, 324 Fourth Ave. 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 



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53 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



Colonial Steel Co. 

main office 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 

WORKS AND MAIN WAREHOUSE 

COLONA, PA. 



BRANCH WAREHOUSES 
NEW YORK . 177-179 Hudson Street 

BOSTON ... 84 High Street 

PHILADELPHIA . 512 Commerce Street 

CHICAGO . . 201-203 E. Lake Street 

SALES OFFICES 

DETROIT . . . 15 17 Ford Building 

SAINT LOUIS . 1511 Chemical Building 

DENVER . . . 24 Jacobson Building 



J. B. FINLEY 

President 

W. H. NIMICK 
Vice-President 

T. H.CHILDS 
Treasurer 

CHAS. M. BROWN 
Secretary 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



CRUCIBLE STEEL 

The works of the Colonial Steel Company 
were built and put in operation in 1902 for the 
manufacture of tool steel. The crucible steel 
melting department comprises nine Siemens- 
Martin crucible melting furnaces, having a 
daily capacity of 72 tons of. ingots. The 
finishing departments consist of bar mills for 
rolling sizes from >^-inch to 4>^-inch sections, 
steam hammers capable of finishing bars from 
^-inch to 18-inch sections, sheet and plate 
mills. 

The heating furnaces are especially built 
for slow and uniform heating of high carbon 
steel, and all the machinery arranged for 
careful hand work. 

Careful inspection is made of all products, 
and no piece is allowed to leave the works 
until after it has been thoroughly tested. 

The manufacture of high grade Tool Steel- 
is our principal business. 

OPEN-HEARTH STEEL 

Owing to the demand for better qualities of 
open hearth steel for agricultural tools and 
high grade machine parts, particularly alloy 
steels of various kinds, basic open hearth 
furnaces were added to the works in 1906. 
These furnaces were purposely built of medium 
capacity, so that the steel would be more 
homogeneous and thoroughly melted. In 
rolling and hammering, the bars are first 
heated and then finished, with the same care 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



OPEN HEARTH STEEL— Continued 

and under the same restrictions as tool steel , 
and after finishing are subjected to a similar 
inspection. 

The aim of the company is to produce the 
best open hearth steel possible. 

We do not manufacture common soft steel 
bars or plates. For a list of our open hearth 
products see pages 24 and 25. 

SERVICE 

Our facilities for prompt shipment are 
unsurpassed. Large stocks of all of our 
regular grades of Tool Steel, both annealed 
and unannealed, are carried in our ware- 
houses in 

NEW YORK 
CHICAGO 

BOSTON 

PHILADELPHIA 
The new warehouse at the works will have 
space for 1000 tons of steel, and our patrons 
are thus assured of prompt deliveries from 
the mill. A complete stock of all sizes of our 
standard grades will be ready for shipment on 
receipt of order. 

BOXING 

Boxing and casing when required will be 
charged at cost. 

ORDERING 

When ordering steel it is important to state 
the purpose for which it is to be used. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



COLONIAL HIGH SPEED 
STEEL 

This steel is especially adapted for the 
heaviest cuts at the highest speeds. 

It is the result of seven years' careful work 
and study by expert tool steel makers, and is 
now at the highest point in efficiency. 

FORGING 

Heat slowly and thoroughly to a yellow 
heat and not further back than is necessary to 
form the tool. Do not work at a cold heat or 
lower than a cherry red, but if necessary,. put 
back into the fire and reheat to make sure that 
the temperature is not lowered while forging. 
It must not be hammered cold. In grinding, 
give the tools as much backing as possible. 



HARDENING 

Lathe and Planer Tools — Heat the tool 
slowly to a cherry red and then bring the 
cutting edge up rapidly to a white sweating 
heat. Plunge at once into oil. The more 
quickly the steel is cooled the better will be 
the results. 

Finishing Tools — Heat the tool uniformly 
to as high a heat as possible without injuring 
the cutting edge or changing the shape, and 
cool at once in oil bath. Draw temper slowly 
until the tool assumes a light straw color. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



COLONIAL HIGH SPEED STEEL 
Continued 

GRINDING 

Grind on a dry stone. If ground on a wet 
stone, plenty of water should be used to pre- 
vent checking. Lathe tools should be ground 
very heavily at first and will be found to 
improve and to do better work after several 
grindings. 



All our High Speed Steel is annealed unless 
otherwise specified, 

COLONIAL HIGH SPEED 
TREATED 

HARDENED READY FOR USE 

TOOL HOLDER SIZES 

CUT TO ANY LENGTHS DESIRED 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



COLONIAL BEST TOOL STEEL 

WATER HARDENING STEEL 

This is an alloy steel and is expressly adapt- 
ed for use where fine finishing cuts are re- 
quired, such as forming tools, cutters, hobs, 
blanking' dies, etc., and threading dies. 

It is also suitable for all lathe and cutting 
tools where machines are not equipped to 
work at the very high speeds adapted to High 
Speed Steel. For a variety of purposes it will 
be found the most desirable steel to use. 

TREATMENT 

Heat slowly and carefully to a dull red or 
approximately 1400° Fahr. Harden in water. 
Draw temper as required. 

Forge with great care. 

COLONIAL No. 7 TOOL STEEL 

This steel is made from the best iron ob- 
tainable and contains a slight proportion of 
alloy, added to give additional strength and 
toughness to a high temper steel. 

It is especially suited for cutting tools of 
all kinds, drills, reamers, dies, taps, etc. 

Its great toughness makes Colonial No. 7 
the best steel for punches, dies of all kinds, 
and for pneumatic tools. 

All bars carried in stock are annealed, ex- 
cept squares and octagons. Harden in water. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



COLONIAL SPECIAL TOOL 
STEEL 

This is the very best grade of straight car- 
bon tool steel manufactured. Nothing but iron 
is used for melting stock, and that iron the 
best that can be had, free from all impurities. 

It is very low in phosphorous and in sul- 
phur, making it exceedingly durable and not 
liable to break or crack in hardening. 

It is suitable for tools of all kinds and for 
all purposes. 

Furnished in the following tempers: 

A This temper is only made for special re- 
quirements and for turning chilled rolls. 
A temper is not carried in stock. 

B Standard Temper, suitable for all cutting 
tools; lathe and planer tools, drills, taps, 
reamers, cutters, dies, etc. 

Q Suitable for punches and for any cutting 
tool of very large size. 

J3 Suitable for shear knives or hot forged 
work. 

E Suitable for chisels, button sets, hot dies, 
etc. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



RED STAR TOOfc, Sl^EL 

A standard grade of Tool Steel for all ordi- 
nary purposes, made from a high grade of 
iron and finished with great care. In quality 
it surpasses any other carbon tool steel except 
our Colonial Special. 

It is made in the following tempers: 

J) Standard Temper for this grade, suitable 
for cold working dies, headers, punches, 
axes, augers, mining drills, shear knives, 
etc. 

£ Suitable for chisels, sledge hammers, 
picks, track chisels. 

J? Suitable for tools for hot work. 



Temper letters are more or less arbitrary, 
and we sometimes make a variation in cases 
where conditions are well known to us and the 
purposes for which the steel is to be used 
indicate it. 



ANCHOR TOOL STEEL 

A good grade of Tool Steel for ordinary 
purposes where a high grade is not necessary- 
For blacksmith work, hammers, sledges and 
hand chisels and similar tools, it gives excellent 
results, and for such purposes we recom- 
mend it. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



RED STAR DRILL STEEL 

Especially adapted and manufactured for 
drilling hard rock. It is used in all the mining 
camps of the United States, Canada and 
Mexico, and is everywhere giving the utmost 
satisfaction. 

Octagon, Round and Cruciform or Rocky 
Mountain shapes. 

colonial STE.£L\_ 

WORKS, PITTSBURGH. Pa. U.S.i 

RED STAR TOOLand DRILL STE 




We also make the following Tool Steels for 
special purposes: 

Colonial No. 10. Colonial Tool M. 

Colonial O B T. Red Star Extra. 

Colonial Superior. Red Star Die. 

GUARANTEE 

Any steel proving defective, when used for 
the purpose ordered, will be replaced, but no 
claims for labor or damages will be allowed. 

All agreements contingent upon strikes, 
accidents, and other causes beyond our con- 
trol. Prices subject to change without notice. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



HIGH SPEED STEEL 
CUTTER BLANKS 

We carry in stock all 
sizes of Round Bars An- 
nealed of High Speed Steel 
and are prepared to cut off 
or forge any size disc for 
prompt shipment. 

Colonial High Speed 
Steel is very uniform and is 
easily hardened in oil. 

Colonial High Speed is the cheapest steel 
to use for cutters, because of its great dura- 
bility and the long life of the cutters. 




ANNEALING 

We make a specialty of annealing all our 
grades of tool steel, and have a separate de- 
partment for this purpose. We can furnish 
the highest tempered steel annealed soft 
enough to be turned, drilled and milled with 
ease and uniformity. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



TOOL STEEL DISCS 

WE CARRY IN STOCK 

and can furnish for prompt 
shipment all sizes of discs 
made from COLONIAL 
SPECIAL and COLONIAL 
No. 7 Tool Steel. 

The Steel from which the 
Discs are made is of superior 
quality and has been very 
carefully annealed so as to 
machine readily, and is of suitable temper for 
Milling Cutters, Punches, Dies, Rolls, or any 
other purpose where a very tough, hard steel 
is required. 




Best results are obtained by heating- the 
Steel to a dark red and then cooling off in 
either fresh or salt water, in the usual manner. 
The temper should not be drawn so low as 
with ordinary grades of steel, as its freedom 
from impurities gives Colonial Special Tool 
Steel great toughness, so that it can be left 
hard. 



Complete Price List of all sizes sent on 
application. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 


TOOL STEEL CLASSIFICATION 


ROUND, SQUARE, AND OCTAGON. 


Extra per lb. 


Extra per lb. 


% to 2 in Base. 


9% to 10 in. 5.0c. 


W% '* 3 " 1.0c. 


A "H u 0.5c. 


3% "« 4 " 1.5c. 


A " % * i.0c. 


4^ " 5 " 2.0c. 


A and || in 2.0c. 


b% « 6 " 2.5c. 


H . " A " 3.0c. 


6^ " 7 « ........3.0c. 


A i n * special only, 5.0c. 


7% « 8 " ..3.5c. 


A " " " 10.0c. 


8Ji « 9 " 4.0c. 

Hexagon 1 cent 




above price for octagon. 


FLAT. 


% to 2 in. thick by A to 2 in wide Base. 


FLAT. 


Extra per lb. 


Extra per lb. 


%x T \ 20.0c. 


Ax % U>% 1.5c. 


%x X 15.0c. 


Ax H " 8. 1.0c. 


%x. A 8.0c. 


%x A " 8 1.0c. 


^ x % 4.0c. 


A*' K * 8 1.0c. 


%x A to 3^ 3.0c. 


%x A " 8 1.0c. 


«* A ".^ 2.0c. 


Ax2J^ « 8.....1.0c : . 


H x 7% " 8 3.0c. 


A to 2 in.x %to2in.0.0c. 


Ax M 5.0c. 


J£"2 "x2^«7" 1.0c. 


Ax A •■ 4.0c. 


%"lj"x7^"8"1.0c. 


Ax % 3.0c. 


l/g"2 " x7% « 8 " 1.5c. 


Ax A to % 2.0c. 


2% « 3 " x2i^ « 5 " 1.0c. 


Ax U« 2 1.5c. 


2J^"'3 "x5^"8"1.5* 


Ax2^ " 7 1.0c. 


3^« 4 "x3^«6"1.5c. 


Ax 7^ « 8..... 2.0c. 


3% « 4 « xG^ « 8 " 2.0c. 


Mx A " % 2.0c. 


i% "5 "x4^"7"2.0c. 


K* A" % i.5c. 


4J^ "5 "x7Jg"8"2.5c. 


Mx H M 2..... 1.5c. 
^x2% « 7 1.0c. 


5j| "6 u x5^»*8"2.5c. 


6% " 7 " x6'^ « 7 " 3.0c. 


%xl l A " 8 2.0c. 


6% "8 "x7i£"8«3.5c. 


Annealing, extra, per lb 1.0c. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



CUTTING TO LENGTH 

CHARGES FOR CUTTING 

To multiples or approximate lengths, 6 ft. or 

lo lengths 24 in. to 6ft..-. l Ac 

To " 18 " to 24 in l c " 

To " nyt " to 18 " l# c " 

To " 6# " to!2 " 2c " 



CLASSIFICATION TABLES 

CRUCIBLE SHEET AND SAW STEEL 

Base sizes, per lb. 

Best Sheet to 21 Ga 

;2d Quality Sheet to 21 Ga 

w " 2i •■ ..*;; 

Extras on lighter Gauge as follows: 
£2 gauge lc, per lb. extra 



23 

24 
25 

26 

27 
28 



.2c. 
.3c. 
.4c. 
.5c. 
.6c. 
.7c. 



SPECIAL KNIFE BLADE SHEET STEEL 



CRUCIBLE CIRCULAR SAW PLATES 



To 46 in 

" 48 " 

" 50 " 

" 52 to 54 iii 

" 56 " 60 " 

" 62 " 64 " 

" 66 " 70 " 

" 72 in. 



Extra Per lb. 

diameter. .Base 

1.0c 

2.0c 

3.0c 

5.0c 

7.0c 

9.0c 

11.0c 



15 



COLONIAL STEEL 


COMPANY 




LIST OF COLONIAL TOOL 




STEEL DRILL RODS 




Suitable 


for Twist Drills, Taps, Punches, 


Dental Tools, Reamers, Watch Parts, 






Electric Work, etc. 






CO 

I 




8 


i 


8 


« 

2 


m 


1 


s 


ft 


p< 


5 


I 


PU 


w 


'3 

fi 
P 


& 


m 


1.5000 


$0.50 


15-32 


0.4687 


80.60 


F 


2570 


$3.75 


111 


1.4687 


.50 


29-64 


0.4531 


.60 


E 


0.2500 


.75 


1/e 


1.4375 


.50 


7-16 


0.4375 


.60 


1-4 


0.2500 


.75 


2 


1.4062 


.50 


27-64 


0.4218 


.75 


D 


0.2460 


.75 


1.3750 


.50 


Z 


0.4130 


.75 


C 


0.2420 


.7.S 


lil 


1.3437 


.50 


13-32 


0.4062 


.75 


B 


0.2380 


75 


ll 5 5 


1.3125 


.50 


Y 


0.4040 


75 


15 64 


0.2343 


.75 


ia 


1.2812 


.50 


X 


Q.3970 


.75 


A 


0.2340 


.75 


iK 


1.2500 


.50 


25-C4 


0.3906 


.75 


1 


0.2270 


.75 


V* 


1.2187 


.50 


W 


0.3860 


.75 


2 


0.2190 


.75 


1ft 


1.1875 


.50 


V 


0.3770 


.75 


7-32 


0.2187 


.75 


1A 


1.1562 


.50 


3-8 


0.3750 


.75 


3 


0.2 L20 


.75 


lR 


1.1250 


.50 


u 


0.3680 


.75 


4 


0.2070 


.75 


1A 


1.0937 


.50 


23r64 


0.3593 


.7n 


5 


0.2040 


.75 


1A 


1.0625 


.50 


T 


0.3580 


.75 


13-64 


0.2031 
0.2010 


.75 


1A 


1.0312 


.50 


S 


0.3480 


.75 


6 


.75 


i 


1.0000 


.50 


11-32 


0.3437 


.75 


7 


0.1990 


.75 


31-32 


0.9687 


.50 


R 


0.3390 


.75 


8 


0.1970 


.75 


15-16 


0.9375 


.50 


Q 


0.3320 


.75 


9 


0.1940 


.75 


29-32 


0.9062 


.50 


21-64 


0.3281 


.75 


10 


0.1910 


.75 


7-8 


0.8750 


.50 


P 


0.3230 


.75 


11 


0.1880 


.75 


27-32 


0.8437 


.50 


O 


0.3160 


.75 


3-16 


0.1875 


.75 


13-16 


0.3125 


.50 


5-16 


0.3125 


.75 


12 


0.1850 


.75 


25-32 


0.7812 


.50 


N 


0.3020 


.75 


13 


0.1820 


.75. 


3-4 


0.7500 


.55 


19-64 


0.2968 


.75 


14 


0.1800 


.75 


23-32 


0.7187 


.55 


M 


0.2950 


.75 


15 


0.1780 


.75 


11-16 


0.6877 


.55 


L 


0.2900 


.75 


Hi 


0.1750 


.83 


21-32 


0.6562 


.55 


9-32 


0.2812 


.75 


17 


0.1720 


.83 


5-8 


0.6250 


.55 


K 


0.2810 


.75 


11-64 


0.1718 


.83 


19-32 


0.5937 


.55 


J 


0.2770 


.75 


18 


0.1680 


.83 


9-16 


0.5625 


.55 


I 


0.2720 


.75 


19 


0.164D 


.83 


-17-32 


0.5312 


.55 


H 


0.2660 


.75 


20 


0.1610 


.83 


1-2 


0.5000 


.60 


17-64 


0.2656 


.75 


21 


0.1n70 


.8* 


31-64 


0.4843 


.60 


G 


0.2610 


.75 


5-32 


0.1562 


.83 





COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



DRILL RODS— Continued 



4> 


to 

I 

1 

ft 


2 


o 

N 


ft 


■c 


o5 


I 




22 


0.1550 


$0.83 


3-32 


0,0937 


$1.05 


61 


0.0380 


$2.40 


23 


0.1530 


.83 


42 


0.0920 


1.05 


62 


0.0370 


2.40 


24 


0.1510 


.83 


43 


0.0880 


1.05 


63 


0.0360 


2.70 


25 


0.1480 


.83 


44 


0.0850 


1.05 


64' 


0.0350 


2.70 


26 


0.1460 


.83 


45 


0.0810 


1.05 


65 


0.0330 


2.70 


27 


0.1430 


.83 


46 


0.0790 


1.05 


66 


0.0320 


3.00 


9-64 


0.1406 


.83 


5-64 


0.0781 


1.20 


1-32 


0.0312 


3.00 


28 


0.1390 


.83 


47 


0.0770 


1.20 


67 


0.0310 


3.C0 


29 


0.1340 


.83 


48 


0.0750 


1.20 


68 


0.0300 


3.00 


30 


0.1270 


.83 


49 


0.0720 


1.20 


69 


0.0290 


3.30 


1-8 


0.1250 


.83 


50 


0.0690 


1.20 


70 


0.0270 


3.30 


31 


C1200 


.90 


51 


0.0660 


1.45 


71 


0.0260 


3.60 


32 


0.1150 


.90 


52 


0.0630 


1.45 


72 


0.0240 


3.60 


33 


0.1120 


.90 


1-16 


0.0625 


1.45 


73 


0.0230 


3.60 


34 


0.1100 


.90 


53 


0.0580 


1.45 


74 


0.0220 


3.90 


7-64 


0.1U93 


.90 


54 


0.0550 


1.45 


75 


0,0200 


4.05 


35 


0.1080 


.90 


ftf 


0.0500 


1.S0 


76 


0.0180 


4.20 


36 


0.1060 


.90 


3-64 


0.0468 


1.80 


77 


0.0160 


4. .50 


37 


0.1030 


.90 


5G 


0450 


1.80 


1-64 


0.0156 


4.50 


38 


0.1010 


.90 


57 


0.0420 


3.80 


78 


0.0150 


4.80 


39 


0.099Q 


1.05 


58 


0.0410 


2.10 


79 


0.0140 


5.10 


40 


0,0970 


1.05 


59 


0.0400 


2.10 


80 


0.0130 


5.40 


41 


0.0950 


1.05 


60 


0.0390 


2.10 









The nbove sizes carried in stock in 3-foot lengths. 
Square and other shapes made to order. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



CLASSIFICATION TABLES 



CRUCIBLE SPRING STEEL 



Extra per lb. 



1J4 to 6 in. x No. 4 gauge and thicker . .Base 


1 " 1% ' 


' x " 1 " 


to 4 g auge,inc. 0.2c 


1 "3 ' 


'■ x " 5 " 


" 7 ' 


" 0.5c 


#and*f ' 


4 x " 1 " 


" 7 ' 


" 0.5c 


3 /sto \\ ' 


1 X " 1 " 


•< 7 « 


" 1.0c 


# " 3 ' 


1 x " 8 " 


" 10 * 


" 1.0c 


X " 3 ' 


' x " y % in. 


"16 < 


11 1.5c 


X " 3 ' 


' x " 17 ga. 


"20 ' 


" 2.2c 


H " H ' 


1 x " 8 " 


"10 ■ 


4 . " 4.0c 


>£ " ^ ' 


1 x " 11 " 


"20. ' 


" 5.0c 



Cutting to lengths, 24 in. and over, -/ (1 c. 
per lb. extra; under 24 in., according to special 
contract, but not less than X c - 



Round and Square 

'Extra pjer lb. 

H to 1% in : Base 

% " ft k ' 0.2c 

H " iV " • 0.5c? 

A • : I.OC 

% i 1.5c 

Cut to lengths, 24 in. and over, ^c. per lb. 
extra; under 24 in., according to contract, but 
not less than f 2 ff c. per lb. 

OPEN HEARTH SPRING 

Same classification as Crucible. 



18 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



NICKEL STEEL 

This is one of our specialties. Colonial 
Nickel Steel is made in small furnaces and 
carefully worked to insure an even and regular 
distribution oj the nickel. 

Bars are hand rolled, or forged under the 
hammer. We are prepared to guarantee 
Nickel Steel free from pipes and surface cracks. 

We furnish three tempers in 3)4 % Nickel 
Steel. 

No. 1 temper Carbon . 12 to .19 

No. 2 " .., " .20 to .29 

No. 3 ■ " . .... " .30 to .40 

Other elements for all three tempers. 

Manganese 60 to .90 

Phosphorous, not over 025 

Sulphur " " 030 

Nickel 3% to 3)4% 



NICKEL STEEL PLATES AND SHEETS 



NICKEL STEEL BILLETS 

For forging purposes, same quality and 
tempers as above, in sizes 1^-ihch square to 
8-inch square, or slabs of equivalent area. 



NICKEL STEEL FORGINGS 



SO% NICKEL STEEL 

Anti-corroding, for valve stems and similar 
purposes, made by the crucible process. 
Carbon 30 to .40 

All sizes furnished. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



SHEET STEEL 

For tools and cutting knives of all kinds, 
springs, agricultural implements, etc. 

Highly polished or planished surface if 
desired. 

Section Steel. 
Guard Plate. 
Saw Steel. 
Cross Cut Saws. 
Circular Saw Platrs. 
Shovel Steel. 
Spring Steel. 
Scraper Plates. 



AUTOMOBILE FRAME SHEETS 



5 PLY JAIL BARS 



5 PLY SAFE PLATES 

Sizes Rolled 
Thickness Width Length 

2 + -inch x (iO-incli x 120-inch to 144-inch 

ii u4 ii 

ii U4 tt 

*" 144 k; 

" 108 ' 4 

<k 108 " 

" 108 '• 

" 96 M 



]*'»; 


1 x 90 k 


4 x 120 


X ' 


x 60 ' 


1 x 120 


t'« 


' x 60 ■ 


x 120 


% ' 


' x 60 b 


x 96 


H • 


' x 60 ' 


k x 96 


% 


' x 50 k 


' x 96 


% ' 


k x 50 ' 


< x 84 


* 


x 50 ' 


k x 60 


% ' 


k x 50 ' 


1 x 6Q 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



SOFT CENTER PLOW STEEL 

Our Soft Center, or 3 Ply, Plow Steel is 
now made in two qualities. The best grade is 
made by the Crucible process, which gives a 
more uniform and higher quality of steely 
This is known as our "Standard Crucible^ 
.brand. 

By the Open Hearth process we make a 
cheaper grade known as "Beaver" brand Soft 
Center Steel. . This is manufactured from 
selected iron with great care, to insure as uni- 
form a product as possible, and one that will 
take a highly polished surface. 

Oiir center plates are entirely of our own 
make, so that we can depend on their being- 
homogeneous and of the proper strength and 
toughness. Each heat is carefully tested be- , 
fore being placed in the ingot moulds. 

CLASSIFICATION 
Slabs ■ Base 

Mouldboards, Regular. .-. . .0.50c Extra per lb. 

Breaker 0.75c bt u " 

Shares, Parallel 0.50c 4b k ' k ' 

Not Parallel 0.75c M " " 

Lister Solid 0.50c " " 4i 

Lister V , cut out . . 1 . 75c " " " 

" Honied 1.25c kt " " 

Shovels 0.50c " " " 

Land Sides 0.25c " " " 

SOLID PLOW STEEL 



In slabs and cuts to patterns. 
Prices on application. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



FILE STEEL 

Kxtra Per lb. 

Square, Half Round, Round and Flat ) 

Bastard, Cabinet, Mill Saw, Horse V Base 
and Shoe Rasp, 8 inch and over. . . . I 

Knife, Slitting Cross, Tumbler, Sad- \ 
die Tree, Rasp, Oval, Cant, Feath- / 
eredge, Shoe, Roller, Gin Saw, Pit 3c 

Saw, Cross-cut (except "Great 
American") 8 inch and over 

Great American Cross-Cut, 8 in. and over . .22 

All Special Shapes not otherwise pro- | 
vided for, 8 inch and over j 

Extras for all File and Rasp Steel, 
except Taper. 

1/z ' 7 %y 2 6 5% 5 4/ 2 4 Zy 2 3 inch. 

% 1 1)6 2 2% 3 3^ 4 \y 2 5c per lb. 

Regular Taper File, 4 inch and over 2c 

Extra for Regular Taper: 

3y 3 inch 

1 4c per lb. 

Slim Taper, 6" inch and over 2c 

Extra for Slim Taper : 

5y 2 5 4% 4 3)4 inch. 
'A 1 2% 4 6>£c per lb. 



22 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 


FILE STEEL SIZES 


i and 
Rnd. 


Flat 


Mill 


Taper 


Half 
Round 


2 in. 


.075 


.240x060 


.240x1)4,') 


.134 


.240x069 


2^ " 


.094 


.280x072 


.288x054 


.167 


.288x082 


3 " 


.113 


.335x084 


.335x063 .234 


.336x096 


3# " 


.131] .384x096 


.384x072 i .302 


.383x109 


4 


.150! .430x107 


.430x081 ! .369 


.431x123 


4^ » 


.169! .478x119 


.478x089 


.402 


.479x137 


5 


.188 .525x131 


.525x098 


.436 


.527x151 


% 5% " 


.206 .573x143 


.573x107 


.470 


.574x164 


6 " 


.225 


.620x155 


.620x116 


.503 


.622x178 


6^ " 


!263 


.668x167 
.715x179 








.715x134 


.570 


.718x205 


.300 


.810x202 


.810x152 


.638 


.813x232 


g 


.338 .905x226 


.905x170 


.705 


.909x260 


10 - 


.37181.000x250 


1.000x187, .772 


1.004x287 


ii " 


.4381.090x272 


1.090x204! .839 


1.100x314 


12 " 


.500 


1.180x295 


1.180x221; .906 


1.195x341 


13 s« 


.563 


1.270x317 


1.270x238 


.973 


1.291x369 


14 " 


.625 


1.360x340 


1.360x255 


1.041 


1.387x396 


15 " 


.688 


1.450x362 


1.450x272 


1.108 


1.482x423 


16 " 


.750 


1.540x385 


1.540x289 


1.175 


1.578x451 


17 " 


.813 


1.630x407 


1.630x306 




L.673x478 


18 " 


.875 


1.720x430 


1.720x322 j 


1.769x505 


19 " 

20 " 

21 " 

22 " 

23 " 

24 " 


.938 
1.000 
1.063 
1.125 
1 188 


1.810x452 
1.900x475 




1.864x533 

1.960x560 


















1.250 











•23 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



MISCELLANEOUS STEELS 



AXE STEEL, 

In Flat and Overcoat Shapes. 

AGRICULTURAL PUNCH AND 

CHISEL STEEL. 
AUGER BIT STEEL. 
BIT AND JAR STEEL. 
BUSH HAMMER STEEL. 
CHROME NICKEL STEEL. 
COAL AUGER STEEL. 
DIE BLOCKS. 
DISCS, 
FORGINGS. 

In the Rough or Rough Turned. 
FORK STEEL. 

GRANITE AND COAL WEDGE 

STEEL. 
HATCHET STEEL. 
HOE STEEL. 
HAMMER STEEL. 
ICE PLOW STEEL. 
MATTOCK STEEL. 
MINING DRILL STEEL. 
NAIL DIE SHAPES. 
PICK STEEL. 

PIKE AND CANT HOOK STEEL. 
PENE HAMMER. 
SAW TOOTH STEEL. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



MISCELLANEOUS STEELS 

Continued 

SLEDGE STEEL. 

SMELTER BAR STEEL. 

SPINDLE STEEL. 

SET SCREW, CRUCIBLE. 

SET SCREW, OPEN HEARTH. 

SHEAR STEEL. 

ROAD SCRAPER STEEL. 

Cut to Shape. 
ROLLER STEEL. 



CRUCIBLE AND OPEN HEARTH STEEL 
OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 



DIE BLOCKS 

We make a specialty of Die Blocks for 
drop forging work. 

Extras on Die Blocks. 

Weighing above 25 lbs. 2c per lb. extra 



15 to 25 " 

10 to 15 " 

1% to 10 " 

5 to 7#" 

3 to 5 " 

2 to 3 " 

1 to 2 " 



...3c 
...5c 

...7c 
...8c 
...9c 
..lie 
..12c 



under 1 lb. flat price 25c each. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



CLASSIFICATION TABLES 

OPEN HEARTH MACHINERY STEEL 

Rounds and Squares 
, y , „ . , Per 100 lbs. 

% to 3 inches Base 

# J° H inch [\$ .10 extra 

l 4 t0 ft 20 " 

H 50 tk 

ft , " 70 " 

,4 and A " 1.00 " 

•>A to 3>£ inches 15 k ' 



3ft to 4 

4,\rto 4^ 

4ft to 5 

5j| to 5^ 

5>£ to 6 



.25 

.30 
.40 
.50 
.75 



Flat Bars and Heavy Bands 

Per 100 lbs. 
inches x % to 1 inch.. Base 

x X and ft " ...| .20 extra 
xlA to lft " .. .10 
" xlX to 1^ " .. .20 
" xl# to 2%' " ., .30 
" x7g to A " .. .40 
x7g to ft « .. .50 
" x^to 1 " ... .20 
" x X to ft " .. .40 
" * ft to 4g - .. .00 
^or intermediate sizes, the next higher 
extra to be charged in all cases. 

Hexagons and Octagons 
x/ ■ u ^ , Per 10 ° lbs - 

% inch and larger | .30 extra 

S A and \\ inch 50 " 

k and a " ;;" 

ft inch 

H inch 

For intermediate sizes, the 
extra to be charged in all cases. 



1 to 6 
1 to 6 
\% to 6 
1% to 6 
\U to 6 
\% to 6 
1 to 1ft 
6 to 8 
6 to 8 
6 to 8 



.70 " 
. . 1.10 " 
. . 1.30 " 
next higher 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



CLASSIFICATION TABLES- Continued 

OPEN HEARTH MACHINERY STEEL 

Light Bars and Bands 

\% to 6 in. x Nos. 7, 8, 9 Ga. and A in $ .40 extra 

\y 2 to 6 " x ' " 10,11,12 '• and H in.... .60 " 

1 to 1/g " x " 7, 8, 9 ,k and & in 50 " 

1 to iX «« x " 10,11,12 " and H in.... .70 " 

*gto \% " x " 7, 8, 9 " and A in 70 V 

Hto «■••' x '*' 10,11,12 " and*! in.... .80 " 

Hand 34 " x " 7, 8, 9 " and ft in . . . . 1.00 ,l 

ftand% " x " 10,11,12 " and/ 8 in.... 1.20 " 

, !, tl and -\ M x " 7, 8, 9 " and A in 1.20 " 

ftand^" x " 10.11,12 " and y s in.... 1.30 " 

% " x " 7, 8, 9 " and A in.... 1.30 " 

^ " x " 10,11,12 " and $£ in.... 1.50 " 

A " x " 7, 8, 9 " and A in.,.. 1.80 " 

S " x " 10,11,12 " and /a in.... 2.10 » 

v h " x " 7, 8, 9 " and ^ in.... 1.90 " 

^ '« x " 10,11,12 " and H in.... 2.40 kt 

For intermediate sizes, the next higher extra to be 
charged in all cases. 

Quantity Differentials 

All specifications for less than 2000 lbs. of a size will 
be subject to the following extras, the total weight of a 
size ordered to determine the extra, regardless of lengths, 
and regardless of exact quantity actually shipped. 
Quantities less than 2000 lbs., 

but not less than 1000 lbs $ M per 100 lbs. 

Quantities less than 1000 lbs .70 " 

. All sizes not enumerated, subject to special ar- 
rangement. 

Extras for Cutting to Specified Lengths 

Per 100 lbs. 

Hot Sawing or Shearing, 24 in. and longer bars $ .10 

Hot Sawing or Shearing, 12 to 24 inches. 20 

Machine Cutting, Specified lengths, above 24 

inches 20 

Machine Cutting, Specified lengths, 12 to 24 

inches 40 

Machine Cutting to Specified lengths, less than 12 
inches, according to contract, but not less than 60c on 
each size. 

No charge for Shear Cutting to multiple lengths of 12 
inches and under. 

No extra charge for Shearing to lengths of 5 feet 
and over. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



TABLES FOR COMPUTING 

WEIGHT OF CAST 

STEEL 

Weight in lbs. of a Lineal Foot of Round, 
Square,, and Octagon Steel. 



•as 


Round 


Octa- 
gon 


Square, 


.as 

■S3 


Round 


Octa- 
gon 


Square 


fc 


.010 


.011 


.013 


16.79 


17.71 


21.37 


% 


.042 


.044 


.053 


2% 


18.51 


19.52 


23.56 


a 


.094 


.099 


.120 


2% 


20.31 


21.42 


25.86 


%, 


.168 


.177 


.214 


2% 


22.20 


23.41 


28.27 


A 


.262 


.277 


.334 


3 


24.17 


25.50 


30.78 


h 


.378 


.398 


.481 


3K 


26.23 


27.66 


33.40 


ft 


.514 


.542 


.655 


314 


28.37 


29.92 


36.12 


¥ 


.671 


.708 


.855 


3% 


30.59 


32.27 


38.95 


1 6 


.850 


.896 


1.082 


3U 


32.90 


34.70 


41.89 


% 


1.049 


1.107 


1.336 


z% 


35.29 


37.23 


44.94 


« 


1.270 


1.339 


1.616 


z% 


37.77 


39.84 


48.09 


M 


1.511 


1.594 


1.924 


3% 


40.33 


42.54 


51.35 


tt 


1.773 


1.870 


2.258 


4 


42.97 


45.33 


54.72 


% 


2.056 


2.169 


2.618 


*H 


48.51 


51.17 


61.77 


» 


2.361 


2.490 


3.006 


W, 


54.39 


57.37 


69.25 


1 


2.686 


2.833 


3.420 


m 


60.60 


63.92 


77.16 


# 


3.399 


3.585 


4.328 


5 


67.15 


70.83 


85.50 


{^ 


4;197 


4.427 


5.344 


514 


74.03 


78.08 


94.26 


i% 


5.078 


5.356 


6.466 


$h 


81.25 


85.70 


103.45 


M 


6.044 


6.374 


7.695 


s% 


88.80 


93.67 


113.07 


i^ 


7.093 


7.481 


9.031 


6 


96.69 


101.99 


123.12 


{% 


8.226 


8.674 


10.474 


7 


131.61 


138,82 


167.58 


i# 


9.443 


9.960 


12.023 


8 


171'.90 


181.32 


218.88 


% 


10.744 


11.332 


13.680 


9 


217.57 


229.48 


277.02 


^ 


12.129 


12.793 


15.443 


10 


268.60 


283.31 


342.00 


2^ 


13.598 


14.343 


17.314 


11 


325.01 


342.80 


413.82 


5% 


15.151 


15.981 


19.291 


12 


386.79 


407.97 


492.48 



Multiply above weights by 1.125 for High Speed 
bteel; by .933 for wrought iron; by .918 for cast iron; 
by 1.0331 for brass; by 1.1209 for copper 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



O 

o 

fa 

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22.95 
25.61 
30.60 


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COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



AVERAGE WEIGHT OF 
CIRCULAR SAW PLATES 





GAUGE 




5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


n 


12 


13 


14 


12 
















4 

6 

61 

8" 

9 
12 
14 


si 

5 

7 


3 
6 


14 
















16 










9 
11 
13 

153 

19i 

22' 

27 

32 

36 

41 

46 

50 

56 

61 

66 

80 

92 

114 
120 
135 
144 


8 
10 
12 
14 
18 
20 
25 
29 
32 
36 
42 
46 


7 
9 
11 
13 
16 
19 


18 
20 
22 
24 
26 


247 
260 


*60 

68 

74 

82 

87 

100 

112 

123 

135 

149 

154 

168 

183 

190 

198 

214 

230 

245 


32 

39 

44 

51 

54 

62 

68 

74 

80 

93 

104 

111 

124 

136 

142 

155 

168 

175 

185 

198 

216 

230 

240 


12 

14 
17 
21 
25 
29 
35 
40 
46 
50 
56 
62 
66 
73 
86 

100 

125 
132 

145 
155 
162 

172 
185 


28 








30 










32 










34 










36 










38 










40 










42 












44 












46 












48 












50 












52 












54 












56 












58 












60 












62 












64 














66 














68 














70 
















72 


284 255 
















1 


' 



















30 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



WEIGHT OF SHEET STEEL 



Fractions 


Number 


Decimals 


Weight of 


Weight of one 


of 


ofStubb's 


of 


One 


Lineal Foot 


an inch 


Gauge 


an inch 


Square Foot 


16 in. Wide 


i 




,5000 


20.520 


27.360 




oo' 


.3800 


15.590 


20.790 


r 




.3750 


15.390 


20.520 




"6' 


.3400 


13.950 


18,600 


'&" 




.3125 


12 820 


17.100 




i' 


.3000 


12.310 


16.410 




2 


.2840 


11.650 


15.530 




3 


.2590 


10.630 


14.170 


i 




.2500 


10.260 


13.680 




"4 


.2380 


9.760 


13.020 




5 


.2200 


9.030 


12.040 




6 


.2030 


8.330 


11.110 


"1% 




.1875 


7.690 


10.260 




7 


.1800 


7.380 


9.850 




8 


.1650 


6.770 


9.030 


A 




.1562 


6 410 


8.550 




"*9 


.1480 


6.070 


8.100 




10 


,1340 


5,500 


7.330 


i 




.1250 


5.130 


6.840 




'ii 


.1200 


4.920 


6.560 




12 


,1090 


4.470 


5.960 




18 


.0950 


3.900 


5.200 


a" 




.0937 


3.840 


5 130 




14 


.0830 


3.400 


4.530 




15 


.0720 


2.950 


3.940 




16 


.0650 


2.660 


3.560 


&' 




.0625 


2.560 


3.420 




17 


.0580 


2.380 


3.170 




18 


.0490 


2.010 


2.680 




19 


.0420 


1.720 


2.300 




20 


,0350 


1.440 


1.920 




21 


.0320 


1.310 


1.750 


"sV 




.0312 


1.280 


1.710 




22 


.0280 


1.150 


1.530 




23 


.0250 


1.030 


1.368 




24 


.0220 


.902 


1.204 




23 


.0200 


.821 


1.094 




26 


.0180 


.738 


.985 




27 


.0160 


.656 


.875 


A 




.0156 


.640 


.855 




28 


.0140 


.574 


.766 




29 


.0130 


.533 


.711 




30 


.0120 


.493 


.657 



31 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



BIRMINGHAM WIRE GAUGE 

In Decimal and Fractional Parts of an Inch, Showing the 
Weight of a Superficial Foot of Sheet Steel. 



Gauge 


h 


Dec. of 

an 

Inch 


Steel, 
Square 

Foot 


4> 

3 

O 
11 




Dec. of 
an 
Inch 


Steel, 
Square 

Foot 


oocoo 


1 


.5000 


20.32 


.1200 


4.88 




H 


.4687 


19.05 


12 


A 


.1090 


4.44 


0000 




.4540 


18.46 


13 




.0950 


3.86 




i\ 


.4375 


17.78 




A 


.0937 


3.81 


000 




.4250 


17.28 


14 




.0830 


3.37 




11 


.4062 


16.51 




A 


.0780 


3.18 


00 




.3800 


15.45 


15 




.0720 


2.93 




s 


.3750 


15.24 


16 




.0650 


2.64 




li 


.3437 


13.97 




tV 


.0625 


2.54 







.3400 


13.82 


17 




.0580 


2.36 




A 


.3125 


12.70 


18 




.0490 


1.99 


1 




.3000 


12.20 




A. 


.0460 


1.91 




ti 


.2960 


12.07 


19 




.0420 


1.71 


2 




.2840 


11 55 • 


20 




.0350 


1.42 




A 


.2810 


11.43 


21 




.0320 


1.30 




H 


.2650 


10.80 




A 


.0313 


1.27 


3 




.2590 


10.53 


22 




.0280 


1.14 




1 


.2500 


1016 


23 




.0250 


1.02 


4 




.2380 


9.68 


24 




.0220 


.89 




H 


.2340 


9.53 


25 




.0200 


.81 


5 




,2200 


8.95 


26 




.0180 


.73 




A 


.2187 


8.89 


27 




.0160 


.65 


G 


i ^ 
i>4 


.2030 


8.26 




A 


.0156 


.64 




A 


.1875 


7.62 


28 




.0140 


.57 


7 




.1800 


7.32 


29 




.0130 


.53 




Jl 


.1710 


6.99 


30 




.0120 


.49 


8 




.1650 


6.71 


31 




.0100 


.41 




A 


.1562 


6.35 


32 




.0090 


.37 


9 




.1480 


6.09 


33 




.0080 


.33 




A 


,1400 


5.72 


34 




.0070 


.28 


10 




.1340 


5.45 


35 




.0050 


.20 




J .1250 I 


5.08 


36 


, 


.0040 


.16 





COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



TABLE SHOWING THE DIF- 
FERENCE BETWEEN 
WIRE GAUGES 



(According to Haswell.) 



No. 


Stubb's 


Brown & 
Sharpe's 


Wo. 


Stubb's 


Brown & 
Sharpe's 


OOCO 


.454 


.46000 


17 


,058 


.045250 


000 


.425 


.40964 


18 


:049 


.040300 


00 


.380 


.36480 


19 


042 


.035890 





.340 


.32486 


20 


.035 


.031960 


1 


.300 


.28930 


21 


.032 


.028460 


2 


.284 


.25763 


22 


.028 


.025347 


3 


.259 


.22942 


23 


.025 


.022571 


4 


.238 


.20431 


24 


.022 


.020100 


5 


.220 


.18194 


25 


.020 


.017900 


6 


.203 


.16202 


26 


.018 


.015940 


7 


.180 


.14428 


27 


.016 


.014195 


8 


.165 


.12849 . 


28 


.014 


.012641 


9 


.148 


.11443 


29 


.013 


.011257 


10 


.134 


10189 


30 


.012 


.010025 


11 


.120 


.09074 


31 


.010 


.008928 


12 


.109 


.08080 


32 


.009 


.007950 


13 


.095 


.07196 


33 


.008 


.007080 


14 


.083 


.06408 


34 


.007 


.006300 


15 


.072 


.05706 


35 


.005 


.005610 


16 


.065 


.05082 









WEIGHT OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN PAT- 
TERN DRILL STEEL, IN LBS. PER 
LINEAL FOOT 



in 1.250 

" 1.625 

" 2.125 

" 2.850 

" 3.375 



It 

il 



in 4.125 

" 4.625 

41 5.312 

" 6.875 

" 8.125 



33 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 


FRACTIONAL PART OF 


AN INCH 


(Expressed in Decimals.) 


L-8 =.12500 . 


1-64 = .015625 


1-4 =.25000 


3-64 = .046875 


3-8 =.37500 


5-64 = .078125 


1-2 =.50000 


7-64 = .109375 


5-8 =.62500 


9-64 = .140625 


3-4 =.75000 


11-64 = .171875 


7^-8 =.87500 


13-64 = .203125 


1-16 = .06250 


15-64 = .234375 


3-16 = .18750 


17-64 = .265625 


5-16 = .31250 


10-64 = .296875 


7-16 = .43750 


21-64 = .328125 


9-1 6 = .56250 


23-64 = .359375 


11-16 = .68750 


25-64 = .390625 


13-16 = .81250 


27-64 = .421875 


15-16 = .93750 


29-64 = .453125 


1-32 = .03125 


31-64 = .484375 


3-32 = .09375 


33-64 = .515625 


5-32 = .15625 


35-64 = .546875 


7-32 = .21875 


37-64 = .578125 


9-32 = .28 125 


39-64 = .609375 


11 32 = .34375 


41-64 = .640625 


13-32 = .40625 


43-64 = .671875 


15^32 = .46875 


45-64 = .703125 


17-32 = .53125 


47-64 = .734375 


19-32 = .59375 


49-64 = .765625 


21-32 = .65625 


51-64 = .796875 


23 32 = .71875 


53-64 = .828125 


25-32 = .78125 


55-64 = 859375 


27-32 = .84375 


57- 64 = .890625 


29-32 = .90625 


59-64 = .921875 


31-32 = .96875 


61-64 = .953125 




63-64 = .984375 







COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



METRIC SYSTEM 

Measures of Weight 

(Unit Gramme) 

Grains Oz. Troy. Lb. Avor. 

Centigramme ,. 0.15432 

Decigramme 1.54323 0.003 

Gramme 15.43235 0.032 0.002 

Decagramme. 154.32349 0.321 0.022 

Hectogramme 1543.23488 3.215 0.220 

Kilogramme.. 15432.34880 32.150 2,204 



0.009 
0.011 



Millimetre.. . 


Measures of Length 
(Unit Metre) 
Inches Feet Yards 
0.08987 0.003 001 


Miles 


Centimetre .. 

Decimetre 

Metre. . . . 


0.39371 0.032 0.010 

3.93708 0.328 0.109 

39.37079 3.280 1.093 




Decimetre 

Hectometre .. 
Kilometre.. . 


.... 393.70790 32.808 10.936 
.... 3937.07900 328.0*9 109.363 
.... 39370 . 79000 3280 . 899 1093 . 633 


O.OOti 
0.062 
0.621 



Convenient Multiples for Conversion 
To Convert 

Grains to Grammes multiply by .065 

Ounces to Grammes V " 28.35 

Pounds to Grammes " " 453/6 

" Kilogrammes " " .45 

Cwts. to " " »* 50.8 

Tons " " " " 1016. 

Grammes to Grains " M 15.4 

" Ounces " " 0.35 

Kilogrammes to Ounces " " 35.3 

" " Pounds '. " " 2.2 

" Cwts. ; " " .02 

M Tons " '* .001 

Inches to Millimetres " " 25.4 

" "Centimetres " M 2.54 

Feet to Metres " M .3048 

Yards to " M •* .9144 

41 "Kilometres, " *« .0009 

Miles" " m a 16 

Millimetres to Inches " " .04 

Centimetres to " " *' .4 

Metres to Feet •• •' 3.3 

44 Yards '• " 1.1 

Kilometres to Yards " " 1093.6 

" Miles •« " .62 

1 Yard - 0.9144 Metre. 1 Sq. Metre'= 1.196 Sq. Yard. 
1 I.itre -=1.760 Pints or 0.22 Gals. 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



TOOL STEEL SUGGESTIONS 

ANNEALING 

The Colonial Steel Company 'a reputation for 
furnishing annealed steel is well known to its 
users for its uniformity in all its grades. 

The old practice of purchasing unannealed 
steel and annealing it in the crude methods 
used in many shops is now almost a thing of 
the past. As different grades of steel require 
different treatment in annealing, it is best to 
order steel annealed by the manufacturer. 

Our modern furnaces especially adapted 
for this purpose give absolute uniformity of 
annealing and make the steel soft enough to 
machine with ease. 

The outer skin or scale which forms in 
annealing should always be removed before 
attempting to harden steel which has been 
annealed, as otherwise the outside will be 
soft. 

TEMPER 

The word "temper" as used by steel man- 
ufacturers represents the amount of carbon 
which is in the steel. It is usual to call steel 
"High Carbon" or "Low Carbon," but there 
are a number of various points of carbon 
between high and low. 

"Tempering" steel is done by hardening 
the steel harder than is necessary and then 
reheating it slowly or until it is drawn to 
proper color (or proper degree in oil by 
high temperature thermometer) for the work 
required of the tool. 



36 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



TOOL STEEL SUGGESTIONS 
Continued 

Owing to the various purposes for which 
special tools are used, it cannot be expected 
that a high carbon steel will answer for all 
purposes, so the steel makers made different 
tempers to meet the requirements of various 
tools. For this reason we urge that every 
order specify for what purpose the steel is to 
be used; by doing this the steel will give 
greater satisfaction and the user will get the 
steelmaker's experience in furnishing steel for 
the desired purpose. 

It will be found very profitable to cut 
pieces off from the ends of bars and heat them 
to different temperatures so as to learn at how 
low a heat the steel will harden, and the lower 
the heat the .better are the results. This will 
often save annoyance and time. 

HEATING TO FORGE 

The introduction of the various alloys info 
the manufacture of cutting steels during the 
past several years has severely tried the 
patience of toolsmiths on account of the den- 
sity of these steels and the importance of a 
uniform heating to obtain the desired results. 

Some of the alloy steels require an excep- 
tionally low heat, while others require the full 
yellow heat. The highest heat that a steel 
will stand is the most desirable to save labor 
in forging. In all cases the steel should be 
heated slowly and uniformly, and the degree 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



TOOL STEEL SUGGESTIONS 
Continued 

of heat Riven should be regulated according to 
the nature of the steel. It should be worked 
quickly, and in no case should it be worked 
below the forging heat. 

Take time enough to insure that the steel is 
heated thoroughly, but if allowed to soak after 
reaching the forging heat it is a disastrous 
practice, as it will invariably result in breakage 
when the tool is hardened. Heat Slowly and 
Uniformly. 

HEATING TO HARDEN 

Owing to the various tempers in steel we at 
times are asked these questions: M What is 
the best way to heat steel? " "At what degree 
of heat should it be hardened?" "What 
method of cooling gives the best results? " In 
the past few years the improvements made in 
Gas and Oil Muffle Furnaces with Pyrometer 
attachments have simplified the method of 
hardening to some extent, where the operator 
is thoroughly acquainted with controlling the 
air, gas or oil so that complete combustion 
exists. Where too much air is used decarbon- 
ization takes place, resulting in the surface of 
the steel not being hardened. The same con- 
dition is found where too much oil or gas is 
used; the surface of the steel takes on the ex- 
cess oil or gas which the water does not remove 
when quenched in bath. Lead is used in many 
places with excellent results. When using these 
methods tools should always be heated to at 



COLONIAL STEEL COMPANY 



TOOL STEEL SUGGESTIONS 
Continued 
least 800 degrees F. before immersing in the 
hot bath. Sudden and uneven and ununiform 
heating are the cause of many tools cracking, 
as the expansion of the outer parts, by being 
quickly heated, causes the outside to be pulled 
away from body of the tool. 

When the forge is used, care should be 
taken to have sufficient body of fuel between 
tbe piece to be hardened and the tuyere iron, 
as where small jets of air strike the tool, soft 
spots are the results. The piece to be hardened 
should v be covered up with plenty of fuel, so 
that the part required to be softened is not ex- 
posed to the air. Care should be taken that 
corners and fine cutting edges are not heated 
faster than body of tool. 

Uniform heat is the most important. 

Harden at as louu a heat as is possible. 
High heat causes irregular grain and results in 
breakage. 

HARDENING 

After pieces are uniformly heated, they 
should be quickly immersed in brine, oil or 
water, according to nature of tool. Plenty of 
water should be used so that uniformity of 
cooling takes place, as this is as important as 
heating. Uneven hardening is caused by not 
having the bath large enough. For hardening 
large pieces, a running stream playing against 
face to be hardened is important, as steam 
pockets are very often formed which result in 
soft spots. 



COLONIAL- STEEL COMPANY 



TEMPER TESTS FOR TOOL 
STEELS 

Deg. Deg:. 

Fahr. Cent. 

L Light Straw 430 222 

2.( Straw 450 232 

3. Dark Straw 470 244 

4. Light Brown 490 255 

5. Dark Brown 510 265 

6. Light Purple 520 271 

7. Dark Purple 530 277 

8. Bright Blue 550 288 

9. Blue . 560 293 

10. Dark Blue 600 316 

11. Bright Red in the dark.. . 752 400 

12. Red in twilight 884 474 

1 3. Red, visible by day 1077 581 



OCTOBER i, 1910